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Aonad 41 Unit 41


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Cúpla Focal

This week’s grammar lesson looks at the use of the possessive pronouns (my, your, his, hers etc)

We will examine firstly nouns that begin with a consonant:


mo – my 

do – your

a – his/her



ár – our 

bhur – your

a – their 


There are rules attached to the use of the above – 

  • mo will aspirate/lenite where appropriate
  • do will aspirate/lenite where appropriate
  • a (his) will aspirate/lenite where appropriate
  • a (her) will not aspirate 
  • ár will eclipse where appropriate 
  • bhur will eclipse where appropriate 
  • a (their) will eclipse where appropriate 

The best way to show this is through the use of examples:

mo charr 

do charr 

a charr 

a carr

ár gcarr 

bhur gcarr 

a gcarr 




mo chara 

do chara 

a chara 

a cara 

ár gcara 

bhur gcara 

a gcara 


mo mháthair 

do mháthair 

a mháthair 

a máthair 

ár máthair 

bhur máthair 

a máthair 

(you will have noted that ‘m’ doesn’t eclipse) 


mo dheirfiúir 

do dheirfiúir

a dheirfiúir

a deirfiúir

ár ndeirfiúir

bhur ndeirfiúir

a ndeirfiúir


mo dhinnéar 

do dhinnéar

a dhinnéar

a dinnéar

ár ndinnéar 

bhur ndinnéar

a ndinnéar


mo bhricfeasta 

do bhricfeasta

a bhricfeasta

a bricfeasta

ár mbricfeasta

bhur mbricfeasta

a mbricfeasta


Aspiration/lenition only occurs with nine consonants in Irish:

b, c, d, f, g, m, p, s, t

b – bh

c – ch

d – dh 

f – fh

g – gh

m – mh

p – ph

s – sh

t – th 

So the letter ‘l’ for example, does not aspirate/lenite 

mo leabhar 

do leabhar

a leabhar

a leabhar

ár leabhar

bhur leabhar

a leabhar

You will have noted that the letter ‘l’ does not eclipse either. You will sometimes hear the word ‘mutation’ for eclipse, or ‘urú’ in Irish 

The 7 consonants that eclipse in Irish are:

b – mb

c – gc 

d – nd

f – bhf

g – ng

p – bp 

t – dt 


Eclipse occurs with vowels also in Irish and their mutations are:

a – n-a 

e – n-e 

i – n-i

o – n-o

u – n-u 

We will see examples of these vowel mutations in the next unit.


So back to some more possessive pronouns that begin with consonants:

mo phictiúr 

do phictiúr

a phictiúr

a pictiúr

ár bpictiúr

bhur bpictiúr

a bpictiúr


mo theach 

do theach

a theach

a teach

ár dteach

bhur dteach

a dteach


That’s enough drilling for now. Slán go fóill. 

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